iii) The Union v. States

Under the Constitution, Parliament has the power to make laws for the whole of or any part of the territory of India. The State Legislatures have the power to make laws for the States. The subjects on which legislation can be enacted are specified in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution. The Union Parliament has the exclusive right to legislate in respect of items appearing in List I, called the ``Union List''. Intellectual property (patents, inventions and designs; copyright; trademarks and merchandise marks) is an item in the union list, which includes areas such as defense, foreign affairs, currency, income tax, excise duty, railways, shipping, posts and telegraphs, etc.

State Legislatures have the exclusive power to make laws in relation to items appearing in List II called the ``State List''. This includes items like public order, police, public health, communications, agriculture, lotteries, taxes on entertainment and wealth, sales tax and octroi, etc. Both Parliament and the State Legislatures have the power to legislate in items appearing in List III of the Constitution which is known as ``Concurrent List''. This list includes items like electricity, newspapers, criminal law, marriage and divorce, stamp duties, trade unions, price controls, etc.

i) The Government
ii) The Constitution
ii) The Union v. States
iv) The Judicial System
iv) The Legal System

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