The Constitution of India guarantees equal rights to all citizens, and
prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, ethnicity, gender, caste,
and religion. The constitution has been amended eighty-six (86) times.
These Amendments reinforce some of the defects in the Indian Constitution.
For example, the Indian Constitution mandates preferential quotas and reservations
for scheduled castes (SCs) and scheduled tribes (STs) in educational institutions
and government jobs up to 22% of the total for an initial period of ten years.
These quotas were extended periodically by 8th (1960), 23rd (1969),
and 79th (2000)
Amendments, ten more years each time. In Andhra Pradesh the total reservations
exceed 70% of the total available seats in educational institutions and government
jobs, with 50% for SC, ST, BC categories, 33% for women and up to 5% for
sports and other categories. A candidate belonging to Forward Castes (FCs)
has to compete with all of the above categories for the remaining positions.
The concept of equal opportunity exists in theory, but it is qualified by
preferential discrimination in practice. Racial preferences based on caste
are embedded into the Constitution and in the minds of people to create a
perpetual cycle of discrimination and reverse discrimination.
The 86th Amendment, the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002, provides for free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the state may, by law, determine; provides early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years; and requires a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.
i) The Government
ii) The Constitution
ii) The Union v. States
iv) The Judicial System
iv) The Legal System
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