Writers of Tikkana Era


1) Moolaghatika Ketana

Moolaghatika Ketana (1200-1280 AD) is one of the important writers of Tikkana Era. His father was Maraya and mother was Sankamaamba. He was the village head of Ventirala for sometime. Later, he migrated to Nellooru where he met Tikkana. His works include Dasakumara Charitra, Andhrabhaashaabhooshanamu and Vinyaaneswareeyamu.

He translated Dasakumara Charitra (Story of Ten Youths) written by Dandi in Sanskrit, and dedicated it to Tikkana. Dandi’s Dasakumara Charitra was in prose. Ketana described the brave acts and love stories of ten young people in beautiful poetry, with delightful descriptions, in twelve chapters of 1625 verses. He used the situations, events and ornaments of his time to describe these stories. He also incorporated several Telugu traditions that were not part of the original Sanskrit work, e.g., he described the cockfight of Andhra.

Andhrabhaashaabhooshanamu is the first independent grammar book in Telugu literature, in about 196 verses of poetry. Ketana used ‘Telugu’ and ‘Tenugu’ words to describe Telugu language. Ketana opined that Telugu was an independent language (not derived from Sanskrit) that was influenced by Sanskrit.

Vinyaaneswareeyamu is the first text on jurisprudence in Telugu poetry. This is translation of ‘Mitaakshari," a very famous and still in use Sanskrit text, written by Vinyaaneswara based on the Smritis collected by sage Yagnavalkya. Even today some of the laws of inheritance, division, woman’s property etc., are used in the modern jurisprudence in India. This text comprises of three chapters and 433 verses. This text gives us an idea of the culture, traditions, jurisprudence of his time.

2) Maarana

Maarana is the son and student of Tikkana Somayaaji. He translated Markandeya Puraanamu. This puranamu is seventh of the eighteen Sanskrit puraanas. This puranamu describes the stories that were not complete in Mahabhaaratamu. Maarana dedicated this puranamu to Gannaya, chief of Army of Kakatiya Empire. When the emperor Prataparudra lost in the war and was captured by Delhi military, Gannaya converted to Islam, changed his name to Malik Makbool and came back to rule Warnagal.

Markandeya Puranamu comprises of attractive stories like Harischandra, Varoodhini-Pravaraakya, Madaalasa-Kuvalyaswa, Bahulasva, Ruchi, Maanini-Rajavardhana, Maruttu, Mahishasura Mardhanamu, Sumbha-Nisumbaha Vadha, etc. Maarana gave importance to the story and didn't deviate from the original. However, Maarana incorporated sensuality into the philosophical and religious puraanamu. Maarkandeya Puraanamu became a source for several works by later poets, like Gourana, Sankara, Peddana etc.

Sreenivasarao Vepachedu, 12/07/1999

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